Kidney Failure Disease

Kidney failure is a pathological condition in which the kidney cannot cope up with its assigned function. Their ability to control fluid in the body, electrolyte levels, acid-base balance, formation and excretion of urine is partially or completely lost. As a result, it can also lead to severe violations of the body's water-salt and osmotic homeostasis, which leads to secondary damage to all body systems.

Etiology of kidney failure

Kidney failure can be caused by multiple diseases of the kidneys, urinary tract, or other organs:

  1. Medicinal nephritis;
  2. The primary lesion of the glomerular apparatus;
  3. Infectious diseases (malaria, sepsis, bacterial endocarditis, viral hepatitis B / C);
  4. Due to tubular pathologies like chronic pyelonephritis, chronic lead intoxication, mercury, hypercalcemia, Albright's tubular acidosis;
  5. Metabolic diseases (gout, diabetes mellitus, amyloidosis, hyperparathyroidism);
  6. Nosologies that obstruct the urinary tract (urethral strictures, urolithiasis, prostate, ureter, bladder);
  7. Systemic diseases (systemic lupus erythematosus, cryoglobulinemic vasculitis);
  8. Hereditary diseases (polycystic kidney disease, hereditary nephritis, phosphate-diabetes, Fanconi syndrome);

Kidney failure symptoms:

Symptoms of renal failure include a decrease in urine volume, even if it may not change in some cases. Water retention, drowsiness, shortness of breath if fluids accumulate in the lungs, swelling of the legs, ankles, feet, fatigue, convulsions, or coma (in severe cases).

Kidney failure develops gradually over time, and patients suffering from it can get confused with symptoms of other diseases. Usually, they become evident when the resulting damage becomes irreversible and may include: nausea and vomiting,  loss of appetite, fatigue and weakness, sleep disturbance, decreased urine output.

Kidney failure treatment: 

A nephrologist carries out kidney treatment, and much depends on the immediate cause of chronic renal failure. If the patient is suffering from other diseases, treatment is carried out in conjunction with other specialists.

Treatment is divided into two types:

  • Conservative;
  • Active.

Conservative treatment includes:

  • Diet - limiting the amount of protein consumed, limiting or completely banning salt;
  • Decrease in blood pressure in the presence of arterial hypertension;
  • Hormone therapy for autoimmune diseases;
  • Blood transfusion with severe anaemia;
  • Essential amino acids ;

Active treatment includes:

  • Hemodialysis - This process involves using an artificial kidney apparatus to purify the blood outside the body. Usually, patients have to visit hospitals two to three times a week.
  • Peritoneal dialysis is one of the latest methods that involves introducing a solution into the abdominal cavity using a special catheter and then suctioning this fluid. This removes harmful substances.
  • Kidney transplant.

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