According to the WHO, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) currently ranks 4th in the list of causes of death on our planet. In India, the mortality from COPD is also very high, 102.3/100,000. Unfortunately, even to this day, it remains incurable. However, with modern medicines, doctors can slow down the progress of the disease, reduce symptoms, and improve the quality of life.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease can be easily classified by partial, irreversible airflow restriction to the airways. As the disease advances, it starts restricting the airflow in a constant progressive nature. Usually, it is due to the abnormal inflammatory response of lung tissues to irritation with various disease-causing particles and gases.
Causes of COPD
Nowadays, 80% of COPD cases can be found in middle- and low-income countries. These countries don't have enough resources to make their population aware of the disease and lack effective coping and prevention strategies.
Some of the leading causes of COPD include:
exposure to harmful environmental factors;
general environmental pollution (car exhaust gases, SO 2, NO 2 );
frequent respiratory tract infections;
occupational hazards (dust containing cadmium, silicon);
deficiency of α 1 -antitrypsin.
The most common chronic obstructive pulmonary disease symptoms include shortness of breath (feeling short of breath), chronic cough, and abnormal phlegm. As the disease further amplifies, daily physical activity will become more and more difficult.
The first symptoms of COPD is cough, which is often ignored by patients thinking it is the usual consequence of smoking. However, when a person gets infected with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, he will first suffer from episodic cough, which will become much more serious as the disease becomes chronic. In the latter stages, the cough becomes almost continuous, including at night.
COPD treatment promotes:
decrease in clinical manifestations;
improving the quality of life;
prevention of disease progression;
increasing exercise tolerance;
prevention and treatment of complications and exacerbations;
decrease in mortality;
The main methods of treatment include:
preparing the patient to use inhalers, spacers, nebulizers;
guidelines for assessing their condition and skills of self-help;
the appointment of drugs that expand the lumen of the bronchi;
prescribing drugs that thin sputum and facilitate its discharge;
the appointment of inhaled glucocorticosteroids;
antibiotic therapy during exacerbations;
body oxygenation and pulmonary rehabilitation;
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