Coma is a dangerous condition in which the patient remains unconscious for years. It causes a complete shutdown of consciousness without signs of mental life. Coma comes from a Greek word meaning deep sleep. However, it is in stark contrast to even deep sleep. Periods of sleep can be interrupted using external stimuli, and a person can fall asleep again. While in a coma, no irritation can bring the patient to consciousness and if the patient is not treated in time, a coma can be fatal.
Coma is not an independent disease. It manifests itself as a development of the underlying disease, trauma, or other factors that have caused disruptions in the parts of the brain and central nervous system.
A variety of reasons can cause a coma, and the most common are the following:
infectious diseases of the brain,
hormonal imbalances and diseases associated with the hormonal system (diabetes),
decreased electrolytes and dehydration,
mechanical damage to the brain, trauma to the skull,
brain damage from lack of oxygen,
overdose of alcohol, drugs or certain medicinal substances,
The symptoms of a coma can vary according to its stage.
confusion of consciousness;
movement coordination disorder;
sleep or stupor;
inhibition of reactions;
inability to perform movements;
a patient may / may not swallow liquid food or water;
inability to make a turn while sleeping;
Treatment must be carried out in a hospital setting, depending on the causes. Coma treatment consists of:
usage of drugs that promotes blood circulation and respiration, stop vomiting;
cleansing of blood;
artificial ventilation of the lungs;
surgical intervention of a neurosurgeon;
a surgeon carries out surgical treatment (for head and neck injuries);
drugs that force diuresis (with intoxication);
usage of insulin or glucose (for diabetic coma);
the use of an antidote (in case of an overdose);
the introduction of thiamine (with hypovitaminosis);
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